Burdwan, also called Bardhaman or Barddhaman, city, central West Bengal, northeastern India. The city is a major communications center straddling the Banka River, just north of the Damodar River. It was chosen by a Punjab merchant family (based on a pharmaceutical [edict] issued by the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb) as its administrative headquarters, and the descendants of the family ruled it until 1955. Grinding rice and oilseed and stockings, cutlery and tool manufacturing are the main industries. Of historical importance are the Rajbari (the Maharajas palace and gardens), several ancient Muslim tombs and 108 Shiva linga in a cluster of 18th-century temples. The Rajbari houses the University of Burdwan, founded in 1960, with several affiliated colleges in the city. The city became a municipality in 1865.
The surrounding place consists of two different regions. The eastern part is a low alluvial plain, densely populated and often swampy and boggy. The Western Region is one of the busiest industrial areas in West Bengal, with rich deposits of coal, refractory clay and iron ore, especially in the Raniganj Basin area. The Damodar Valley Corporation provides irrigation, industrial power, and flood control. Rice, maize (maize), legumes and oil seeds are the most important crops in the East. Pop. (2001) city, 285,602 (2011) city, 314,26