Bhubaneshwar, historically Bhuvaneshvara, city, capital of Odisha (Orissa) state, eastern India. It is located in the eastern part of the state on the Kuakhai River, a constituent stream of the Mahanandi River Delta Bhubaneshwars history from the 3rd century BC is depicted in the nearby Dhauligiri rock decade of the Mauryan Emperor Ashoka at the site of his famous conquest of the Kalingas. Between the 5th and 10th centuries CE, it was the provincial capital of many Hindu dynasties and a center of devotion to the god Shiva. The many temples (including the Mukteshwara and Parashurameshwar), showing every phase of Orissans architecture, were built between the 7th and 14th centuries.
The town consists of the Old Quarter, with about 30 ancient temples, and a planned township built after 1948, when the capital was moved there from Cuttack. In the latter are the state government buildings, the state museum, Utkal University (founded 1944 in Cuttack) and the Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology. Indira Gandhi Memorial Park is located in the center of the city. Bhubaneshwar is located on the national road between Kolkata (Calcutta) and Chennai (Madras) and on the South-Eastern Railway, and has an airport. Also in the city are the rock-cut caves of Khandagiri and Udayagiri, a zoological and botanical park, and the ancient excavation site of Sisupalgarh. Chandaka Wildlife Sanctuary is located just west of Bhubaneshwar. Pop. (2001) 648,032 (2011) 843,402.